Laravel relationship gives me “?” instead of email

That’s just how toSql() works. What you are seeing is a parameterized query. These parameterized queries allow type-specific value when replacing the ? with their respective value. They are frequently used when executing dynamic SQL from a program.

You can read more on this topic here: https://scotch.io/tutorials/debugging-queries-in-laravel

If you really want to see the actual queries, try enabling the query log. One thing to note here is that this logfile can grow very large on a busy server.

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