Plotly fails to show text in Latex labels in Python

I came across to the same problem too. The temporary solution is to quote the text in \textrm. i.e.

fig.update_layout(
    title = 'My figure',
    xaxis_title = r'$\Delta t\textrm{(s)}$',
    yaxis_title = r'This text is not displayed/$\sqrt{2}\textrm{(ps)}$',
)

The result looks like this below.

<html>
<head><meta charset="utf-8" /></head>
<body>
    <div>            <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS-MML_SVG"></script><script type="text/javascript">if (window.MathJax) {MathJax.Hub.Config({SVG: {font: "STIX-Web"}});}</script>                <script type="text/javascript">window.PlotlyConfig = {MathJaxConfig: 'local'};</script>
        <script src="https://cdn.plot.ly/plotly-latest.min.js"></script>                <div id="7b53913b-db4a-4833-8079-266d3d528b3d" class="plotly-graph-div" style="height:100%; width:100%;"></div>            <script type="text/javascript">                                    window.PLOTLYENV=window.PLOTLYENV || {};                                    if (document.getElementById("7b53913b-db4a-4833-8079-266d3d528b3d")) {                    Plotly.newPlot(                        "7b53913b-db4a-4833-8079-266d3d528b3d",                        [{"type": "scatter", "x": [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9], "y": [1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81]}],                        {"template": {"data": {"bar": [{"error_x": {"color": "#2a3f5f"}, "error_y": {"color": "#2a3f5f"}, "marker": {"line": {"color": "#E5ECF6", "width": 0.5}}, "type": "bar"}], "barpolar": [{"marker": {"line": {"color": "#E5ECF6", "width": 0.5}}, "type": "barpolar"}], "carpet": [{"aaxis": {"endlinecolor": "#2a3f5f", "gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "minorgridcolor": "white", "startlinecolor": "#2a3f5f"}, "baxis": {"endlinecolor": "#2a3f5f", "gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "minorgridcolor": "white", "startlinecolor": "#2a3f5f"}, "type": "carpet"}], "choropleth": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "type": "choropleth"}], "contour": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "colorscale": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]], "type": "contour"}], "contourcarpet": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "type": "contourcarpet"}], "heatmap": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "colorscale": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]], "type": "heatmap"}], "heatmapgl": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "colorscale": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]], "type": "heatmapgl"}], "histogram": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "histogram"}], "histogram2d": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "colorscale": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]], "type": "histogram2d"}], "histogram2dcontour": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "colorscale": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]], "type": "histogram2dcontour"}], "mesh3d": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "type": "mesh3d"}], "parcoords": [{"line": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "parcoords"}], "pie": [{"automargin": true, "type": "pie"}], "scatter": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scatter"}], "scatter3d": [{"line": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scatter3d"}], "scattercarpet": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scattercarpet"}], "scattergeo": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scattergeo"}], "scattergl": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scattergl"}], "scattermapbox": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scattermapbox"}], "scatterpolar": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scatterpolar"}], "scatterpolargl": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scatterpolargl"}], "scatterternary": [{"marker": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "type": "scatterternary"}], "surface": [{"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}, "colorscale": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]], "type": "surface"}], "table": [{"cells": {"fill": {"color": "#EBF0F8"}, "line": {"color": "white"}}, "header": {"fill": {"color": "#C8D4E3"}, "line": {"color": "white"}}, "type": "table"}]}, "layout": {"annotationdefaults": {"arrowcolor": "#2a3f5f", "arrowhead": 0, "arrowwidth": 1}, "autotypenumbers": "strict", "coloraxis": {"colorbar": {"outlinewidth": 0, "ticks": ""}}, "colorscale": {"diverging": [[0, "#8e0152"], [0.1, "#c51b7d"], [0.2, "#de77ae"], [0.3, "#f1b6da"], [0.4, "#fde0ef"], [0.5, "#f7f7f7"], [0.6, "#e6f5d0"], [0.7, "#b8e186"], [0.8, "#7fbc41"], [0.9, "#4d9221"], [1, "#276419"]], "sequential": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]], "sequentialminus": [[0.0, "#0d0887"], [0.1111111111111111, "#46039f"], [0.2222222222222222, "#7201a8"], [0.3333333333333333, "#9c179e"], [0.4444444444444444, "#bd3786"], [0.5555555555555556, "#d8576b"], [0.6666666666666666, "#ed7953"], [0.7777777777777778, "#fb9f3a"], [0.8888888888888888, "#fdca26"], [1.0, "#f0f921"]]}, "colorway": ["#636efa", "#EF553B", "#00cc96", "#ab63fa", "#FFA15A", "#19d3f3", "#FF6692", "#B6E880", "#FF97FF", "#FECB52"], "font": {"color": "#2a3f5f"}, "geo": {"bgcolor": "white", "lakecolor": "white", "landcolor": "#E5ECF6", "showlakes": true, "showland": true, "subunitcolor": "white"}, "hoverlabel": {"align": "left"}, "hovermode": "closest", "mapbox": {"style": "light"}, "paper_bgcolor": "white", "plot_bgcolor": "#E5ECF6", "polar": {"angularaxis": {"gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "ticks": ""}, "bgcolor": "#E5ECF6", "radialaxis": {"gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "ticks": ""}}, "scene": {"xaxis": {"backgroundcolor": "#E5ECF6", "gridcolor": "white", "gridwidth": 2, "linecolor": "white", "showbackground": true, "ticks": "", "zerolinecolor": "white"}, "yaxis": {"backgroundcolor": "#E5ECF6", "gridcolor": "white", "gridwidth": 2, "linecolor": "white", "showbackground": true, "ticks": "", "zerolinecolor": "white"}, "zaxis": {"backgroundcolor": "#E5ECF6", "gridcolor": "white", "gridwidth": 2, "linecolor": "white", "showbackground": true, "ticks": "", "zerolinecolor": "white"}}, "shapedefaults": {"line": {"color": "#2a3f5f"}}, "ternary": {"aaxis": {"gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "ticks": ""}, "baxis": {"gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "ticks": ""}, "bgcolor": "#E5ECF6", "caxis": {"gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "ticks": ""}}, "title": {"x": 0.05}, "xaxis": {"automargin": true, "gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "ticks": "", "title": {"standoff": 15}, "zerolinecolor": "white", "zerolinewidth": 2}, "yaxis": {"automargin": true, "gridcolor": "white", "linecolor": "white", "ticks": "", "title": {"standoff": 15}, "zerolinecolor": "white", "zerolinewidth": 2}}}, "title": {"text": "My figure"}, "xaxis": {"title": {"text": "$\\Delta t\\textrm{(s)}$"}}, "yaxis": {"title": {"text": "This text is not displayed/$\\sqrt{2}\\textrm{(ps)}$"}}},                        {"responsive": true}                    )                };                            </script>        </div>
</body>
</html>

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