how can i combine rows in a range and consider a 3rd column?

You could use non equi join in data.table:

library(data.table)
df1 <- setDT(df1)
df2 <- setDT(df2)

df1[,group := 1:.N]
df1[df2,on = .(chrom, low < position, high > position)]


   chrom   low  high group  Gene
1:     1  1200  1200     1 Gene1
2:     1 10000 10000    NA Gene2
3:     5   500   500     3 Gene3
4:     5   560   560     3 Gene4
5:     1 20100 20100     2 Gene5

Here I first set a group for each line of df1. After the merge, the line is associated to a group if the condition is met.

Non equi merge are not super intuitive, but super powerfull, and explicit: the merging condition .(chrom, low < position, high > position) is letterally what you explicited (you want same chromosome, and position between low and high).

In data.table, when you do

df1[df2,on = something]

you subset df1 with the lines of df2 meeting the condition expressed by on. If something is just a common variable of df1 and df2, then it is equivalent to

merge(df1,df2,all.y = T,by = "someting")

But something can be a list of variable and conditions between the variables of your two data.tables. Here, .() indicates a list, and .(chrom,low < position, high > position) indicate you merge on the variable chrom (identical between the two data.tables), and low < position, and high > position. When you express inequality, you must start with the variable from the main data.table (df1 here), then the variables of the subsetting data.table (df2).

The output of this non equi merge using inequalities replace the variable expressed in inequalities of the main data.table (i.e. df1) by the variables of the subsetting data.table (i.e. df2 here), and so low and high become position. If you want to keep the low and high values, you should copy them in an other variable, or merge on a copy of these variables.

You can actually do the opposite merge, wew you subset df2 by df1 entries, with the same condition:

df2[df1,on = .(chrom,position >low , position<high)]

    Gene chrom position position.1 group
1: Gene1     1      500       1700     1
2: Gene5     1    19500      20600     2
3: Gene3     5      400       1500     3
4: Gene4     5      400       1500     3

Here you subset df1 with the entries of df2 meeting the conditions expressed in on = .(), and obtain the list of Gene that actually belong to a group (Gene2 is not here because it does not match the subset).

Similarly to what has been explained above, here position become low and high


Edit

I just saw @DavidArenburg ‘s comment, and it is a more condensed and better version of what I proposed and explained:

df2[, grp := df1[.SD, which = TRUE, on = .(chrom, low <= position, high >= position)]]

directly associate the result of the non equi merge df1[df2,on = .(chrom, low < position, high > position)] to the group variable, using which = TRUE, which gives you the line of df2 which meet the merge condition of df1[df2 , on =....].

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